Charlottenburg - the circular village in the Banat Area - Original article

 

Founded in 1771, Charlottenburg is the only circular shaped settlement in the Banat area.
The interior plaza is round , the properties are arranged around it in a radial manner.

 

Török Enikö

 

The inner square with a fountain in the middle, marked on the map of 1784, was planted with mulberry trees.
Originally there were four roads leading into the center of the plaza, later the road structure has changed, as shown on the map of 1821.
The village was founded during the second wave of colonization in 1771 by131 German colonists. The colonists were settled by Timisoara's Guverneur Count Karl Ignaz Clary Aldringen.
In 1782 the village was sold by the Chamber of Pósfay József, in 1814 it went into the possession of Prince Karl Schwarzenberg, later it was in Kevermesi Thököly Péters possession and in 1838 it went into the possession of Baron Georg Sina.

 

The local plans went to the the Hungarian National Archives in 1895, during the transfer of the documents from the Directorate of the Chamber Cartographic Temesch Kameral administration.
The Chamber Cartographic Directorate (Mappierungs Direction) was established in 1780 as the successor to the Mappierungskorps. After the reconnection of the Temes Banat it was renamed to Plan Archive (Planarchiv) in 1812.
The Directorate had the following tasks:
- Mapping in conjunction with the colonization and Urbarialregulation
- Measurement of the Überländer und der Industrialien
- Planning of villages (reconstruction and development of the ancient villages on geometrical plans)
- Tracking of changes of ownership, implementation of corrections.

 

Charlottenburg 1775

Franz Häscher: Plan von dem Dorff Scharlodenburg ..., 1775 (With Koller's border corrections from 1784)

National Archives of Hungary: Map collection - Königliche kameralische Mappierungs Direction - Map (S1) - No 102/1

 

The documents and land registers belonging to the maps, were unfortunately not preserved, yet a lot of information can be read directly from the maps. The first distribution of land before 1780 was carried out by the engineer Francis Kammeral, in the year 1775. According to the chart on the map, there were 31 half properties, wine gardens, fruit orchards and pastures. The village had a church, a parsonage building, a cemetery, a pub, a butcher's shop, a mill and a barn. Some plots are marked with the name of the owners, the black numbers mark the number of the plot, the red numbers show the house number. With exception of the 7 empty plots the following owners are registered:

Gothardt Vend, Matheus Zoster, Johannes Guberta, Maria Margaretha Luczianin Wittwe, Simon Guberta, Jacob Robbe, Antoni Mott, Johann Schweitzer, Adam Marx, Christoph Weingärtner, Johannes Corneth, Lorentz Schweitzer / Schweizer, Christian Gygi / Gigy [Hügner], Joseph Higne [Hügner] senior, Nicola Higne [Hügner], Joseph Higne junior, Christoph Mischelis, Johannes Andriolo, Thomas Longo, Bartholomae Trettell, Pietro Sanolli Sanoli, Gotfridt Breitterer / Breitrer / Breiterer, Paul Hollinger.

 

On another map, a copy of the map of William of Prockelt (S 1 No. 102/2), the names of the owners of the vineyards and pastures are found: Partholome [Batholomäus] Drettel, Peter Danalin, Jacob Rubel [Robbe?], Simeon Gubert, Jordan Zician et Andriolo, Patista [Baptist] Guberda, Gorhard Weiner, Paul Höllinger, Tomas Lonko, Johan Andreo [Andrioli?], Jacob Mihayli, Mathias Roster [Zoster?], Joseph Hieginie junior, Johan Schweizer, Lorenz Schweitzer, Johann Kornet, Cristoph Weingärner, Adam Mark, Nicola Hieginie, Gotfrid Preiter, Josep Higin senior, Lopad Cornicon v. Aliosch [from Alios], Petro Januschel v. Aliosch, Philipp Stej.

The different ortography and pronunciation designates often the same person or family, for example: Trettel – Drettel, Higne – Hieginie – Higinie, Guberta – Guberda – Gubert, Breitterer – Breitrer – Breiterer – Preiter.

 

Charlottenburg 1784

Franz Häscher – Koller: Map Charlottenburg, 1784

National Archives of Hungary: Map collection - Königliche kameralische Mappierungs Direction - Map (S1) - No 102

 

In October 1784 the engineer Koller examined and corrected the preceding measurements. He has performed border modifications (map S 1 NO 102/1), repeated measurements of some areas, revised calculations and registered the results into a separate chart. During this update it was determined that there exists deviations. For example, considering the preceding measurements, also concerning the "over countries" (difference between the surfaces worked on by farmers and those in the Urbarium registered) exists large deviations. In the map of 1784 the names of the owners and the numbers of the plots are registered along the borders: Joseph de Bosfaj, Andreas Schweitzer, Peter Perann, Cristoph Leinwerth, Thomas Meschymosser, Phillip Lechner, Andrila Janosch, Heinrich Scheuerman, Azim aluj Georgie, Simon Gubert, Akim st. Jano, Christoph Weingärt[ner], Georgie st. Jano, Johann Andriol[i], Rista Gabrilla, Jakob Roppel, Thoma Mihaj, Lorenz Schweitzer, Jacob Würtash, Peter Hekmann, Franz Marp, Abraham Leyer, Johann Gubert, Andreas Grill, Joseph Zweeng, Johann Buchert, Kasper Heilmann, Schivoin Millin, Franz Schano, Pable Poppovitz, Peter Roster, Jonn Schurs.

 

A separate chart contains the Industrialien (allodial estate - worked by farmers who pay the owner a fixed amount for the use of, essentially, leased areas). It shows the vineyards and pastures separately, together with the name of the owners: Joseph Hygner, Mattes Albert, Simon Gubert, Lorenz Schweitzer, Kasper Heilmann, Julianna Schweitzerinn, Margaretha Hygner, Margaretha Roster, Christoph Michelj, Thomas Longo, Paul Höllinger, Johann Gubert, Johann Andriolo, Jakob Roppel, Anna Dannolinn, Andreas Schveitzer, Christian Hügner, Johann Andriolo, Phillipp Stey, Jacob Rubel, Lapadat Kornikon aus Alleusch, Peter Janoschel aus Alleusch.

 

Charlottenburg 1821

Kasmir Johann Haag -Anton Fr. v. Baselli: Map Charlottenburg, 1821

National Archives of Hungary: Map collection - Königliche kameralische Mappierungs Direction - Map (S1) - No 102/3

 

In 1794 the land from the engineer Johann Casimir Hague were redistributed. His map, we know by the copy of Anton Fri Baselli, from the year 1821. On this map you can see that the road network inside the village has been changed at the beginning of the 19 th century. Only three of the main roads leading into the center remained. In the village there was already a school. Among the owners of vineyards and orchards there are the following names to read:

Fridrich Gall, Lenhard Erd, Eva Hebmaum, Joseph Saitz, Michl Zeitvogel, Johan Konrad, Thomas Müller, Georg Pfefferman, Bernhard Huk, Johan Simon Blumenthal, Niklas Mithauer, Jeremias Blauhorn, Ursala Himmlsbacher, Johan Bauer, Hironimus Paulin Wiesenh, Christian Graff, Johan Mayer, Johan Döringer, A. Maria Schum Atringen, Ludwig Hopp, Ernest Huck. Auf den Allodium hatten Hausplätze: Peter Schöpfler, Georg Ashauser, Konrad Frenol, Lorenz Sonlag, Heinrich Töröck, Fideli Fertig, Porton Pister, Jeremias Blauhorn, Benhard Erd und Franz Kranz.

 

The maps of Charlottenburg are good examples of the cartographic materials kept in the holdings of the Mappierung Direction, the so-called Urbarialkartensammlung. In its large majority they are actually Urbarial, maps to specify possessions by, with the purpose of assessing the deliveries. First of all they represent the urbarial possessions and/or properties used by urbarialen tenants, but they also mention the Allodes. The names of the owners, tenants and the data on the cultivation of the land are either found directly on the map or on the enclosed documents, records and land registers. Urbarialkarten from the 18-19 century have survived in Hungary.

 

 

References:

Irmédi-Molnár László: A Magyar Kamara térképező munkálatai a Temesközben 1780-tól 1859-ig. In: Térképtudományi tanulmányok. A budapesti Eötvös Lóránd Tudományegyetem Térképtudományi Tanszékének évi beszámolója az 195658. évre. Budapest, 1958. 588. p.

Website of the Charlottenburg village in the 20th century (this) and Google-Maps view.